Journal of Orthopedic and Spine Trauma

Published by: Neoscriber Demo Publisher

Are Arthroscopic PCL Avulsion Fixation and its Long Learning Curve Morally Justified When Other Surgical Approaches are Valid? An Ethical Issue in Surgical Research

Farzad Amouzadeh Omrani 1 , Gholamhossein Kazemian 1 , * , Alireza Manafi Rasi 1 , Mohammadmahdi Sarzaeem 1 and Mohammad Khak 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Journal of Orthopedic and Spine Trauma: March 2017, 3 (1); e60943
  • Published Online: March 31, 2017
  • Article Type: Discussion
  • Received: January 3, 2017
  • Revised: January 31, 2017
  • Accepted: March 2, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/jost.60943

To Cite: Amouzadeh Omrani F, Kazemian G, Manafi Rasi A, Sarzaeem M, Khak M. et al. Are Arthroscopic PCL Avulsion Fixation and its Long Learning Curve Morally Justified When Other Surgical Approaches are Valid? An Ethical Issue in Surgical Research, J Orthop Spine Trauma. 2017 ;3(1):e60943. doi: 10.5812/jost.60943.

Copyright: Copyright © 2017, Journal of Orthopedic and Spine Trauma. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
2. Conclusion
  • 1. Chen SY, Cheng CY, Chang SS, Tsai MC, Chiu CH, Chen AC, et al. Arthroscopic suture fixation for avulsion fractures in the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament. Arthroscopy. 2012; 28(10): 1454-63[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Bali K, Prabhakar S, Saini U, Dhillon MS. Open reduction and internal fixation of isolated PCL fossa avulsion fractures. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012; 20(2): 315-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Beecher HK. Surgery as placebo. A quantitative study of bias. JAMA. 1961; 176: 1102-7[PubMed]
  • 4. Sasaki SU, da Mota e Albuquerque RF, Amatuzzi MM, Pereira CA. Open screw fixation versus arthroscopic suture fixation of tibial posterior cruciate ligament avulsion injuries: a mechanical comparison. Arthroscopy. 2007; 23(11): 1226-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Gwinner C, Hoburg A, Wilde S, Schatka I, Krapohl BD, Jung TM. All-arthroscopic treatment of tibial avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament. GMS Interdiscip Plast Reconstr Surg DGPW. 2016; 5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Bhattacharya K, Cathrine AN. Ethical considerations in laparoscopic surgery. Indian J Med Ethics. 2004; 1(1): 22-3
  • 7. Noble H, Gallagher P, Campbell WB. Who is doing laparoscopic appendicectomies and who taught them? Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2003; 85(5): 331-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Francoeur JR, Wiseman K, Buczkowski AK, Chung SW, Scudamore CH. Surgeons' anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy. Am J Surg. 2003; 185(5): 468-75
  • 9. Annas GJ, Grodin MA. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code: relevance for modern medical research. Med War. 1990; 6(2): 120-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. World Medical Association General A. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. J Int Bioethique. 2004; 15(1): 124-9[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader